the Little Cedar Mountain story:
Dragging Canoe & the Chickamauga Cherokee

work in progress. dateline compilation according to sources' dates & descriptions.
first version: 28 nov 97; last update: 3 dec 97 tpk


1660 Large groups of Shawnee were driven south by the Iroquois. The Cherokee allowed one group to settle in South Carolina and serve as a buffer between them and the Catawba. Other Shawnee were permitted to locate in the Cumberland Basin of Tennessee for a similar purpose against the Chickasaw. [ Cherokee were 63 independent towns. Shawnee were down here at the time - in south Georgia - "Savannah" & "Sewannee" are derivatives of their name. ]
1692 Shawnee raid to capture slaves for trade with the English destroyed a major Cherokee village while its warriors were absent on a winter hunt. This treachery destroyed any trust or friendship that had existed between the Cherokee and Shawnee.
1693 Cherokee delegation visited Charlestown demanding more firearms to fight their enemies.
1705 North Carolina was urging South Carolina to curtail the trade in Native American slaves or face a massive uprising. [There wasn't a separate distinct difference between North & South Carolina that early. The more foresighted colonial leaders were the voices of opposition to slavery, that enslaving natives would unite native opposition and would thus be counter-productive.]
1706 Peace arranged between the Cherokee and Iroquois to serve British military and trading interests.
1708 Cherokee joined the Catawba and Alibamu in an attack against the Mobile in southern Mississippi who were serving as middlemen for the new French trading posts in the region.
1713 300 Cherokee warriors served with the South Carolina army of Colonel James Moore against the Tuscarora.
1715 Some Lower Cherokee joined the Yamasee during the general uprising against the Carolinas. [The bulk of Cherokee as a whole supported the English. "Our safety very much depends on the Cherokees."]
1715 Cherokee allied with the Chickasaw to inflict a major defeat on the Shawnee of the Cumberland Basin. [Pretty accurate ... as when the Shawnee started going north]
1721 First treaty and land cession by the Cherokee, regulated trade and established a boundary between the Cherokee and the British settlements.
1730 White Owl (Atakullakulla/"Little Carpenter"), a young man and "Prince of Chota", goes to England with six other older but still young Cherokee.
1738 Possibly the oldest child of Atakullakulla, Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni (Dragging Canoe) was born. Had brothers Little Owl and Turtle At Home.
1738 Devastating smallpox epidemic. [ Half of the Cherokee people died. Priests wiped out around this time? ... reason? ]
1740 Creeks finally driven from Little Cedar mountain area stemmed from generations' old war between Shawnee & Cherokee, (Creek secretly supported the Shawnee)
1745 Second Chickasaw alliance forced remaining Shawnee north across the Ohio River.
1750 Third Chickasaw alliance succeeded in defeating the French-allied Choctaw. [ Major war between Cherokees and Creeks; Creeks finally driven from Little Cedar Mountain area. ]
1750 Atakullakulla led war parties against the French & their Native allies, including Shawnee, in the Ohio Valley.

A 12-14 year old boy, told he couldn't go with the war party unless he could drag the fully-loaded war log canoe on land into the water. His enthusiasm and endeavors earned him the name "Dragging Canoe".

1750s Atakullakulla captured by the French, taken to Canada, released.
1753 Second (but smaller) devastating smallpox epidemic. Total death count of nearly half of all Cherokee.
1754 The contest between the French and British for control of a New World empire culminated in the French and Indian War, in which native alliances became the objects of European military strategy. English soldiers built Fort Loudoun near present-day Vonore, Tennessee, in an effort to keep the divided Cherokee loyal. The plan backfired as Cherokee warriors laid siege to the fort and starved out its garrison, most of whom were massacred on their march to captivity.
1763 British Proclamation prohibited all westward settlement beyond the Appalachians.
1763 The Keetoowah (meaning "Principal People", Western Cherokee or Old Settlers), a small group of pro-French Cherokee, after the French defeat by the British, relocated to northern Arkansas and southeastern Missouri. [*There weren't "Keetoowahs" then. This didn't happen. No reason for Cherokee emigration.]
1770s Dragging Canoe, headman of the town of Malaqua, a town on an island in the Little Tennessee River, now inundated by the TVA Tellico Dam.
1774 Watauga Treaty and
1775
March 17
Overhill Cherokee Treaty (Sycamore Shoals) The Transylvania Land Company aka Henderson Purchase, for most of Kentucky and Middle Tennessee, led by Richard Henderson of Hillsborough, North Carolina, the largest private real estate transaction in United States' history. For the price of 2,000 pounds sterling and 8,000 pounds in goods (about six wagon loads of goods worth), he purchased 20 million acres of land from the Cherokee Nation that included the Cumberland River watershed and lands on the Kentucky River (all of eastern and central Kentucky). During these dealings, the local settlers "purchased" the right to remain on the Cherokee land that they were living on in the Watauga settlement. One of the minor chiefs, Dragging Canoe, opposed to the selling of the Cherokee ancestral hunting grounds, warned the whites that they were purchasing a "dark and bloody ground".
1775
artist's rendition of a Chickamaugan "Whole Indian Nations have melted away like snowballs in the sun before the white man's advance. They leave scarcely a name of our people except those wrongly recorded by their destroyers. Where are the Delawares? They have been reduced to a mere shadow of their former greatness. We had hoped that the white men would not be willing to travel beyond the mountains. Now that hope is gone. They have passed the mountains, and have settled upon Tsalagi (Cherokee) land. They wish to have that usurpation sanctioned by treaty. When that is gained, the same encroaching spirit will lead them upon other land of the Tsalagi (Cherokees). New cessions will be asked. Finally the whole country, which the Tsalagi (Cherokees) and their fathers have so long occupied, will be demanded, and the remnant of the Ani Yvwiya, The Real People, once so great and formidable, will be compelled to seek refuge in some distant wilderness. There they will be permitted to stay only a short while, until they again behold the advancing banners of the same greedy host. Not being able to point out any further retreat for the miserable Tsalagi (Cherokees), the extinction of the whole race will be proclaimed. Should we not therefore run all risks, and incur all consequences, rather than to submit to further loss of our country? Such treaties may be alright for men who are too old to hunt or fight. As for me, I have my young warriors about me. We will hold our land."
- Chief Dragging Canoe, Chickamauga Tsalagi (Cherokee) 1775
[recorded by pro-Cherokee whites?]

[subsequently the Henderson Purchase was repudiated and negated by both British and American governments. individuals were not allowed to make land purchases. that right was withheld by centralized european governments dealing with tribes as nation-to-nation.]



1776
March 1
Dragging Canoe went to Mobile AL to escort 2 British Commissioners, Cameron (Dragging Canoe's adopted brother), to bring a pack-train to the Cherokee back to Chota & give the British line re. the upcoming American Revolution. Dragging Canoe was in full agreement
1776
April
Back at Chota. Alexander Cameron advises Indian neuturality because there were Loyalists among whites - Indians wouldn't know the difference. Cameron & Stuart sent letters to whites in the area. Text was altered to foment anti-Indian sentiment (fear of attack).
Delegation of northern Indians, predominantly Shawnee (Cornstalk?), came to Chota requesting a Cherokee alliance against the American.
Raven of Chota led an attack against the Carter Valley sentiments - burned houses, but Americans had withdrawn. Nancy Ward, a "Beloved Woman of the Cherokee, having been a warrior in her day, forewarned the Americans.
Abram of Chilhowee led the attack against Fort Wautaugo where Sevier was at the time. Laid siege, nothing happened, so the Cherokee withdrew.
Dragging Canoe went against the Holston River settlements, including the Eton Station fort, but the Americans, forewarned by Nancy Ward, were prepared and successfully defended themselves. The Cherokee attacked, Dragging Canoe got shot through both legs; his brother, Little Owl, also got hit. The Cherokee withdrew for lack of numbers.
Elders, including Oconostota, wanted to capitulate and offered a reward of 100 pounds on the heads of Dragging Canoe and Alexander Cameron. No record of known attempts on their lives.
Dragging Canoe responded by withdrawing from the area and moved with his people to the Chattanooga area. Joined by survivors of the Lower Towns of South Carolina.
1776
July
700 Chickamauga attacked two American forts in North Carolina: Eaton's Station and Fort Watauga. Both assaults failed, but the raids set off a series of attacks by other Cherokee and the Upper Creek on frontier settlements in Tennessee and Alabama.
The Wataugans, led by their popular and soon-to-be-famous Indian fighter John Sevier, repulsed the onslaught and swiftly counter-attacked. With the help of militia from North Carolina and Virginia, they invaded the heartland of the Cherokee and put their towns to the torch.
1776 At the outbreak of the American Revolution, leaves father up north Knoxville way, moves families downriver to Chickamauga & Chattanooga & Running Water Creeks ... Upper & Lower Towns.
[At the beginning of the year Dragging Canoe wanted to attack the American whites, and vice versa. However, most of the Cherokee were opposed to war. British didn't want indians involved. Letter was copied, faked, derisive comments about Indians added, copies circulated to stir up anti-British hate among Indians.]
Dragging Canoe was very militant. Led an attack against whites, but didn't have much of a following. Rather than capitulate with the older men, he and other disillusioned warriors moved south to Chattanooga and Chickamauge Creeks and became the warsome Chickamauga wage war against the settlers for the next twenty years.
1776
September
Americans destroyed more than 36 Cherokee towns killing every man, woman and child they could find. [Rather than killing all the indians, impromptu slave auctions on site were held to raise money for the White militia by selling Native women & children. ]
1777 Unable to continue resistance, the Cherokee in the area asked for peace. The Treaties of DeWitt's Corner (May) and Long Island (or Holston) (July) were signed at gunpoint and forced the Cherokee to cede almost all of their remaining land in the Carolinas.
1777
Summer
Dragging Canoe led raids against American settlers as far up as southern Virginia - killing whites whenever they could find them & burning houses.
1778-79 Most Cherokee fighters (made up of many half-bloods & mixed-bloods, predominantly white mix - French, English, Irish, Spanish & American-born whites, Cherokee, Shawnee, Creek, and free Blacks) went to Georgia to join the British forces in the Georgia campaign.
1776-82 Cherokee under Dragging Canoe joined the side of Great Britain in the American Revolution against encroaching white settlement.
Cui Canacina (Dragging Canoe) and the Chickamauga refused the Overhill Cherokee Treaty and kept raiding the new settlements. At the outbreak of the Revolution, the Cherokee received requests from the Mohawk, Shawnee, and Ottawa to join them against the Americans, but the majority of the Cherokee decided to remain neutral in the white man's war. The Chickamauga, however, remained at war with the Americans and formed an alliance with the Shawnee.
1779 Evan Shelby attacks & burns 11 Chickamauga towns in the Chattanooga area while Dragging Canoe was in Georgia. Upon learning of this, Dragging Canoe & men come back, Cameron with British arms also.

At this time a Shawnee delegation came down to see if the burning of the towns had broken the Cherokee resistance. Dragging Canoe assured them that he would keep fighting. Alexander Cameron recorded Dragging Canoe's speech, "We are not yet conquered."

A group of Cherokee went to the Shawnee to fight with them and to assure consolidation of will. Likewise, a group of Shawnee, including Tecumseh's widowed mother, her son, Tecumseh, a boy, and his triplet brothers, including the later White Prophet, came down. Their older brother fought with distinction, but was killed a few years later in the raid on Nashville.

Dragging Canoe then moves Chickamaugans in Lower Town of Running Water; Breath established Nickajack by Nickajack Cave - across the river from Little Cedar Mountain.

1780 Dragging Canoe rescued the British Col. Brown in the American Siege of Augusta. Returned home.
The Chickamauga remained hostile and renewed their attacks against western settlements in Tennessee, Alabama, and Kentucky. Continued his resistance, attacks Nashville against Cumberland settlements.
1781
July
After more fighting, the forced second Treaty of Long Island of Holston confirmed the 1777 forced cessions and then took more Cherokee land.
1782 The English give up the war effort and sued for peace. Dragging Canoe established contact with the Spanish in Florida and British in Canada and Detroit.
1790 Chickamaugans continued action with the Shawnee in the Ohio Valley: the Ohio Chickamaugans.
1790-94 "Little Turtle's War" of the Miami in the Ohio Valley with the Wyandots, Delaware, Hurons, Mohawks and Dakota. After their initial victories. From here, they had the unofficial encouragement of the Spanish governments of Florida and Louisiana and continued attacking American settlements. One of these incidents almost killed a young Nashville attorney/land speculator named Andrew Jackson, which may explain his later attitude regarding the Cherokee.
1791
January
Chickamauga Chief Glass/"Catawba Killer" captured James Hubbard and 16 men building a blockhouse at Muscle Shoals, Alabama, and released them with a warning not to return.
1791
November 4
Combined force of Chickamaugans, Creek, Anishinabe (Chippewa), Shawnee, Deleware, Iroquois, Miami, Wynadot and Dakota totally annihilated the forces of American Gen. Arthur St. Clair at the Wabash River in Indiana. "St. Clair's Defeat" - the biggest (number of whites killed) united Native triumph in history.
1792
February 17
Chickamauga Chief Glass and Dragging Canoe's brother, Turtle At Home, waylaid the John Collingsworth family near Nashville, killing the father, mother, and a daughter, and capturing an eight-year-old girl. Returning to Lookout Town (near Trenton, Georgia), they held a scalp dance, grinding one of the scalps in his teeth as he performed. Dragging Canoe, recently returned from Mississippi after meeting with Choctaws, celebrated the occasion so strenuously that he died the following morning, age 54.
John Watts of Will's Town (near Fort Payne, Alabama), became the new Chickamauaga leader of the united war effort. Cherokee resistance continued - led a big campaign against settlements in Nashville (Buchanan Station 1793) and in upper east Tennessee led the combined Cherokee-Creek attack at Cavett's Station in 1793 in which there were no white survivors.
1794 American victory at Fallen Timbers in the north Ohio Valley. British failed to support Native allies.

After two years of fighting against the Tennessee militia, support from other Cherokee declined, and the Chickamauga's resolve began to weaken.

1794 Skirmish near Muscle Shoals in Alabama.
1794 Battle at Nickajack. White attack on Nickajack, burned town. Breath, long-time headman of Nickajack, killed.
Unofficial militia raid by Col. James Orr of Nashville area took Nickajack by surprise and killed mostly women and children, took a few captives back to Nashville. Most men were attending a social function down in Turkeytown, Alabama. Men wanted pursuit, but were talked out of it by the families of captives who feared their family members' death. Nickajack rebuilt. ... Spanish withdrew their support, suggesting some accommodation with the Americans rather than continue fighting.
1796 Tellico Treaty ended hostilities between USA and Cherokee, signed by the Chickamauga and leader of the Chickamauga John Watts, a half-blood, Old Tassel's nephew.
Warfare generally ended between Cherokee and Chickamauga, although armed resistance by Will Webber "Red-Haired Will", half-blood who founded Will's Town, and full-blood Bowl, continued. Webber went west of the Mississippi, Bowl to Texas.
1799 Chickamaugan migration complete. Open warfare between the Cherokee and Americans ended.
1800 James Orr, who led the 1794 expedition that burned Nickajack, lived in the Knoxville area, went bankrupt, failed in white society. Went to live among the Indians, ironically, selected Nickajack, and was accepted, especially after he explored Nickajack Cave and began mining the cave, producing gunpowder for the Chickamauga. Also operated a Cherokee tavern there. (Larry's later.)
1803 United States gained control of Arkansas and Missouri through the Louisiana Purchase. Warfare between Cherokee and Osage fairly common.
1808 Over 2,000 western Cherokee established in northern Arkansas
1817 Turkey Town Treaty The first formal recognition of the Western Cherokee by the United States. Under its terms, 4,000 Cherokee ceded their lands in Tennessee in exchange for a reservation with the Western Cherokee in northwest Arkansas.
1817 Osage continued to object to the Cherokee presence. Americans built Fort Smith to maintain peace.
1818-19 Calhoun Treaty ceding land north of the Hiwassee River and North and West of the Tennessee signed by Secretary of War John Calhoun and Cherokee in Washington and ratified by the U.S. Senate. New Eastern Cherokee immigration to Western Cherokee. Numbers now 6,000. The Gloss, John Walker, Path Killer, Going Snake and more signed. Treaty signer John Boggs may have lived at Little Cedar Mountain. His wife was Turtle At Home's daughter.
Treaty established boundaries of Cherokee lands in Arkansas Territory.
1824 Americans built Fort Gibson to maintain peace between Osage and Cherokee.
1825 White settlers of the Arkansas Territory demanded the removal of both the Cherokee and Osage.
1828 Western Cherokee forced to exchange their Arkansas lands for a new location in Indian Territory of Oklahoma, and adopted a written constitution.
1833 Boundaries of new Western Cherokee reservation determined.
1835 Osage agreed to boundaries of new Western Cherokee lands.
1835 Treaty of New Echota in north Georgia. The "Treaty Party" sign away all land of the Cherokee Nation east of the Mississippi.
Later, upon arrival in Oklahoma, three principle signers: Major Ridge, John Ridge and Elias Boudinot "Buck Watti", were assassinated for supporting the 1819 "Old Settlers" in opposition to John Ross' late arrivals. Period of intense civil war between the Cherokee in Oklahoma. Sequoyah withdrew from the area and moved to Mexico, others emigrated to California.
1838 All Indians in Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama "removed". Dragging Canoe's lands are racially cleansed of his and all other native people.
1862-5 American Civil War. The Keetoowahs came into being, siding with the Union and fought against the Cherokees who sided with the Confederates.
John Ross was a Union supporter and took the Cherokee treasury to Washington for "safekeeping" where he married a white woman and lived to the end of his days.
The "Old Settlers" were primarily pro-Confederate, and the Ross people pro-Union. The Keetoowah supported the Union.
Confederate General Cherokee full-blood Stan Watti (Elias Boudinot's brother) was the last Confederate general to surrender to the Union. He was the Supreme Confederate Commander in Texas at the time.
1862 River ferry, first established by Dragging Canoe's brother, Turtle At Home, operated at Little Cedar Mountain (Shellmound) by mixed-bloods Larry, subsequently by a white man named Love.
Union General Negley drove Confederates out of the north side area at Battle Creek, through Jasper, to Little Cedar Mountain.
1862-63 Confederates mined saltpeter from Nickajack Cave (south side of river). Rebel soldiers abandoned it, the largest Confederate saltpeter mine, escaping over the Sand Mountain to Chattanooga.
1863
August
Major encampment and river-crossing site for the Union Army's approach to Chattanooga.
1864-65Jasper area under US military control to protect area and ferry against Rebel insurgency.
...
1913 Hales Bar Dam built one mile upstream from Dragging Canoe's old home at Running Water.
1933 US government created the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) as a Depression-era social plan to make fertilizer down in Mussel Shoals, Alabama, and later expanded their role to control flooding in Tennessee River valley and provide for rural electrification.
1939 TVA purchased Hales Bar Dam, displacing the town of Guild.
1950s TVA determined Hales Bar Dam inadequate, plans drawn up for site six miles downstream and 1 mile below the old town of Nickajack.
1960s TVA acquired property from all surrounding property owners by eminent domain.
Archaeologists worked to determine the Native American "cultural resources" in the future reservoir that would be forever lost.
1964 Construction of TVA Nickajack Dam begun. Cedar Mountain Corporation formed to install a marina, 44 house lots, and hotel. Plan later given up.
1967 TVA Nickajack Reservoir filled. Dragging Canoe's lower town lands flooded.
1967 TVA urged State of Tennessee to develop a state resort park on a 701-acre tract of TVA land known as Tract 3, the land currently in jeopardy.
1968 TVA developed the Shellmound Recreation Area on 81 acres on the downriver portion of the Tract 3 land in an attempt to boost the State's interest in expanding the facilities into a resort.
1969 Local Shriners create Annual Fall Color Cruise celebration begun at the Shellmound Recreation Area.
1973 State of Tennessee completed a Master Plan for a large-scale resort park on Tract 3 and subsequently rejected plans.
1987 Mandated by federal regulations, TVA initiated the Nickajack Reservoir Lands Planning project, and as a part of this, solicited archaeological survey proposals of the entire reservoir. University of Alabama Office of Archaeological Research conducted a "Cultural Resources Survey" of Little Cedar Mountain.
1990 TVA Board of Directors approved the Nickajack Reservoir Land Management Plan which identified 638 acres of Tract 1 (below the dam) for Industrial Use, 701 acres of Tract 3 for Public Recreation Development, and 39 acres of Tract 4 (the mountain itself) for Public Recreation Development. Management Plan states that private sector proposals for development of public recreation facilities on Tract 3 (the land in question) would be considered with evidence of financial feasibility. The plan also stated that private residential or non-recreational commercial development would not be allowed.
1995
November 20
TVA goes public with a plan for 1,079-acre Outdoor Recreational Complex that would contain developed & undeveloped areas.
1995
December 19
TN Wildlife Resources Agency writes their opposition to TVA proposal
strongly urge the property remain as is, undeveloped
1996
January 26
US Fish & Wildlife Service opposed TVA proposal
strongly urge the property remain as is, undeveloped
1996
April
TVA orchestrated public hearings in Jasper TN: stipulated that speakers register one-hour in advance of meeting in order to speak. TVA promised that the public would still have access to the property and the Shellmound Recreation Area would be unaffected.
1996
December
TVA's "Final Environmental Assessment: Recreation Development Alternatives for the Little Cedar Mountain Tracts, Nickajack Reservoir, Marion County, Tennessee", by Michael R. Crowson, Lenoir City TN, published. TVA's Nickajack Little Cedar Mountain land divided into four sectors with different uses proposed: Tract 1: 638 acres below the dam containing extensive Native burials, formerly zoned for Industrial Use, now allocated for "wildlife management over a long-term period"; Tract 3: 701 acres of former farmland immediately above the dam, previously zoned for "Public Recreation", changed to "private sector for commercial recreation, public recreation and residential development", this is the principle land in immediate jeopardy of development by TVA and Hines Interests, Limited Partnership of Houston, Texas; Tract 4: 39 acres of land located between East- and West-bound lanes of Interstate 24 between Chattanooga and Nashville; and Tract 5: the southern section of the steep Little Cedar Mountain proper which contains various Native American sites.

TVA Assessment editor Lee Carter writes that 66% of respondents on the issue were in favor of the development.
Marion County Commission voted 14-1 in favor of development of Little Cedar Mountain (Commissioner Louin Campbell was the sole opposition vote.

1997
June 1
Sacred Little Cedar Mountain Defense Coalition (SLCMDC) and Chattanooga InterTribal Association (CITA) members tom kunesh and Judy Fox discovered an undocumented mound in the middle of Little Cedar Mountain's Tract 3. The information was to be kept secret until further confirmation and decision about its political implications.
1997
July 5
"TN River Band of Chickamauga" demonstrated at TVA headquarters in downtown Chattanooga, 20-person rally distributed 800 pamphlets downtown and at the TN Aquarium. Their objective was a phone & letter-writing campaign to local US Representative Zach Wamp.
1997
September 7
SLCMDC members walked 7 miles from Nickajack Shellmound Recreation Area to the Marion County Court House in Jasper, Tennessee, where a 60-person rally was held.
1997
September 10
Chattanooga Times's editorial "TVA stumbles on Little Cedar" published.
1997
October 22
SLCMDC member, the Chattanooga InterTribal Association, issued a press release, scooping the local media:
"Little Cedar Mountain is public land that TVA wants developed. Native American, environmentalist & local citizen groups oppose this sale of historical public land for private profit.

TVA says it's currently in negotiations with a chosen developer, but
won't say who it is. In this message the Chattanooga InterTribal
Association (CITA) announces TVA's secret developer as
-= Hines Interests Limited Partnership =-
and provides you addresses and stories about them.

this document contains:
    Name & local contacts.
    Hines holdings in Texas and Georgia
    News Stories on Hines

Hines Interests Limited Partnership
($7 billion in assets)

Owner/President Gerald Hines, living in London, England
U.S. Director Kevin Shannahan, Chicago, Illinois
V.P. (son of P) Jeff Hines, Houston, Texas
    Transco Towers 713. 621.8000
    2800 Post Oaks Blvd. 713. 850.8841
    Houston TX 77056 fax 713. 850.0733

Little Cedar Mountain Project, Atlanta, Georgia
Project Director Bob Boyles environmental attorney
Assistant Director John Hicks 770. 206.5300
Secretary Stacey fax 770. 206.5327

Boyles & Hicks have been to the LCM site. ..."
and much more data. [ complete text here ]

1997
November
TVA's Little Cedar Mountain Project Manager Mike Crowson informed people of a "misunderstanding" about public access to the Little Cedar Mountain property and recreation area, and that rather, TVA had always retained that option for the developers.
1997
November 1
TVA for the first time publicly identified Hines Interests L.P. as the possible developer of the Little Cedar Mountain project. TVA's choice of Hines Interests' was earlier identified to the media by the Sacred Little Cedar Mountain Defense Coalition on 22 October (see above).
1997
November 4
Jasper Journal reports that Marion County Commission voted 9-6 in favor of Little Cedar Mountain development, largely due to Crowson's recent disclosure of the "misunderstanding" regarding public access to Little Cedar Mountain after development.
1997
December 8
First public meeting held in Jasper, Tennessee, since TVA announced Hines Interests, Limited Partnership, as the developer of choice. Meeting sponsored by Sacred Little Cedar Mountain Defense Coalition whose goal is to save Little Cedar Mountain in Dragging Canoe's honor, to preserve it as the unique ecological center it has become, to oppose any and all development plans on Little Cedar Mountain.


sources: Raymond Evans, archaeologist & Cherokee historian, Chattanooga TN
(a past editor of the Journal of Cherokee Studies. see his essay, "Dragging Canoe" 1977 2(1): 176-189)

"Keetoowah History and Prophecy," Chief John Ross, United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee, first Annual Native American Symposium, University of Arkansas.

Daniel Boone, http://ac.acusd.edu/history/classes/civ/boone.html

Frederick W. Turner III, The Portable North American Indian Reader: Dragging Canoe, p. 244

Carter County, Tennessee, Genealogy, "Sycamore Shoals" http://www.usit.net/tngenweb/carter/index.html#HISTORY

Lee Sultzman, "Cherokee History, Parts 1 & 2" http://www.dickshovel.com/Cherokee1.html, /Cherokee2.html

Tennessee History "Struggle for the Frontier" http://www.state.tn.us/sos/struggle.htm

Tennessee Valley Authority, "Nickajack" brochure on the Nickajack Dam & Reservoir, Chattanooga, Tennessee, July 1996

Tennessee Valley Authority, "Final Environmental Assessment: Recreation Development Alternatives for the Little Cedar Mountain Tracts, Nickajack Reservoir, Marion County, Tennessee", Michael R. Crowson, Lenoir City, Tennessee, December 1996

Dragging Canoe's speech, The Indigenous Peoples: "Indians" in North America before the European Invasion through the 19th century.
Readings: Frederick W. Turner III, The Portable North American Indian Reader : Dragging Canoe, p. 244


All articles copyright of their respective journals.
This information reprinted here for educational purposes only.


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